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Farzin Rock Stone Co.

Tel:
       9821 - 22063227
       9821 - 22092057
       9821 - 22099131
       9821 - 22092060
Fax: 9821 - 22067030
Email: info@rockstone.biz
Address: # 3, No.27, East. Sarv St. Ave., Kaj Square Saadat-Abad Ave , Tehran, Iran
Post Code: 1998653788

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Stone Maintenance & Preservation Manual


1. STONE HISTORY
2. TYPES OF STONE
3. STONE NAMES
4.TYPES OF SURFACE TEXTURES
5.STONE COLORS

 
6.REFLECTIVITY 0F STONE
7.THE HARDNESS OF STONE
8.STONE MAINTENANCE & CHEMICALS
9.UNDERSTANDING PH BALANCES
10.THE STONE MAINTENANCE CYCLE
 

 

STONE HISTORY

Stone is a natural solid formation of one or many minerals. There are thousands of types of stone that have been quarried through the centuries. Quarries are located all around the world. A majority of natural stone comes from Iran ,Italy, Spain, Turkey, United States, Mexico, China, Taiwan, India, Greece, Canada, France, and Brazil.
The minerals in stone came from the same liquid and gas minerals that formed the earth. The Earth developed as a massive body of gas and liquid minerals that slowly cooled and condensed to a solid core.
Through pressure, the Earth's crust began to form and heavy minerals were forced down to the core of the Earth where they were trapped. As the crust got thicker, it squeezed around the inner core which created intense pressure and heat from within the Earth. Crystals and other solid forms began to grow from the mineral vapors that were being released. As the Earth's crust began to expand and erode, heat and pressure pushed the solid minerals up to the Earth's surface which formed colossal rock beds. It took up to one-hundred million years to form some of these beds. Many of the beds are now used as quarries where the stone is mined.
Most of these minerals can be identified by their color, hardness, and crystal formation. Crystals come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The wide array of these minerals are often difficult to identify. Many stones look very similar to each other; however, they are all very different.
It is imperative to know the exact type of stone that is to be maintained. Stone is natural and may have adverse reactions to certain cleaning chemicals and procedures. Most stones are also natural alkalis and so are dirt and soil; therefore, stone and dirt are attracted to each other which often makes cleaning very difficult. This makes the proper selection of cleaning procedures and chemicals for stone very complex.
Always consult with a Professional to establish a precise stone Maintenance system.

 

TYPES OF STONE

The familiar stone types that are used today are identified through four categories: sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous stone, and man-made.
I. Sedimentary stone came from organic elements such as glaciers, rivers, wind, oceans, and plants. Tiny sedimentary pieces broke off from these elements and accumulated to form rock beds. They were bonded through millions of years of heat and pressure.
Limestone: Mainly consists of calcite. It does not show much graining or crystalline structure. It has a smooth granular surface. Varies in hardness. Some dense limestone's can be polished. Common colors are black, gray, white, yellow or brown. It is more likely to stain than marble. Limestone is known to contain lime from sea water.
Sandstone: Is a very durable formation of quartz grains (sand). Usually formed in light brown or red colors. Categorized by the most popular sandstone bonding agents such as silica, calcium, clay, and iron oxide.
Soapstone: A very soft stone made of a variety of talc. It is a dense mineral that wears well and is often resistant to stains.
Fossilstone: Considered a limestone that contains natural fossils such as sea shells and plants.
Travertine: Usually a cream or reddish color. It is formed through the accumulation of calcite from hot springs. It contains lots of holes that were formed from water flowing through the stone. These holes are often filled with synthetic resins or cements. Requires lots of maintenance if the holes are not filled. Classified as a limestone and a marble.
II. Metamorphic stone originates from a natural change from one type of stone to another type through the mixture of heat, pressure, and minerals. The change may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, or a color change.
Marble: A recrystallized limestone that formed when the limestone softened from heat and pressure and recrystallized into marble where mineral changes occurred. The main consistency is calcium and dolomite. Ranges in many colors and is usually heavily veined and shows lots of grains. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 5 on the MOH Scale.
Marble is classified into three categories: (Stone World)
1. Dolomite: If it has more than 40% magnesium carbonate.
2. Magnesian: If it has between 5% and 40% magnesium carbonate.
3. Calcite: If it has less than 5% magnesium carbonate.
Slate: A fine grained metamorphic stone that formed from clay, sedimentary rock shale, and sometimes quartz. Very thin and can break easily. Usually black, grey, or green.
Serpentine: Identified by its marks which look like the skin of a serpent. Most popular colors are green and brown. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 4 on the MOH Scale. Contains serpentine minerals has lots of magnesium, and has an igneous origin. Does not always react well to recrystallization or diamond polishing.
III. Igneous stones are mainly formed through volcanic material such as magma. Underneath the Earths surface, liquid magma cooled and solidified. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and created new crystalline formations with various colors.
Granite: Primarily made of Quartz (35%), Feldspar (45%) and Potassium.
Usually has darker colors. Contains very little calcite, if any.
Provides a heavy crystalline and granular appearance with mineral grains. It is very hard material and easier to maintain than marble.
Yet, it is still porous and will stain. There are different types of granite depending on the percentage mix of quartz, mica and feldspar.
Black granite is known as an Anorthosite. It contains very little quartz and feldspar and has a different composition than true granite.
IV. Man Made Stones are derived of unnatural mixtures such resin or cement with the additive of stone chips.
Terrazzo: Marble and granite chips embedded in a cement composition.
Agglomerate or Conglomerate: Marble chips embedded in a colored resin composition.
Cultured or Faux Marble: A mix of resins that are painted or mixed with a paint to look like marble.

 

STONE NAMES

Currently, there are many companies around the world that use generic names to identify different types of stone. This has created a problem for the stone maintenance industry. The original names were in Italian.
Usually the name consists of two parts. The first part describes the color and the second part describes the name from where the stone was quarried. Identification of the actual name will help SCI design a more accurate maintenance plan.

Italian NAME ENGLISH COLOR
Azzuro Blue
Breccia Broken Pieces
Dorato/D'oro Gold
Fiore Flower
Giallo Yellow
Negro/Nero Black
Perla/Perlato Pearl
Rosa Pink
Rosso Red
Verde Green
Bianco White
 

TYPES OF SURFACE TEXTURES

There are many different types of stone available today. When stone is ordered, it is fabricated with a particular type of surface. There are six main types of surfaces that are selected:
Honed: Provides a flat to low sheen gloss. Different levels of gloss can be selected. This surface is very smooth, but often very porous. This texture is common in high traffic buildings. Honed floors should always be protected with a Penetrating Sealer because it has wide-open pores. Honed stone colors are not as vibrant as a polished stone.
Polished: A glossy surface that wears away with time due to heavy foot traffic and using improper maintenance procedures. This surface is very smooth and not very porous. The reflectivity of polished crystals brings out the brilliant colors and grains of natural stone. The shine comes from the natural reflection of the stone's crystals. The polish is provided by polishing bricks and polishing powders that are used during fabrication. The shine is not from a coating.
Flamed: A rough surface that is developed through intense heat. During fabrication, the stone is heated up and the crystals begin to pop, thus forming a rough surface. This surface is very porous and must be treated with Sealers. Tumbled: A slightly rough texture that is achieved by tumbling small pieces of marble, limestone, and sometimes granite to achieve an archaic/worn appearance. It often requires an application of Stone Color Enhancer to bring out the colors.
Sand Blasted: This surface is the result of a pressurized flow of sand and water that provides a textured surface with a matte gloss.
Sawn: A process performed by using a gang saw.
Bush Hammered: A pounding action that develops a textured surface. The degree of roughness can be selected.
Regardless of the type of surface that is to be maintained, all stones should be protected with Penetrating Sealer.
A sealer is sufficient for honed and polished floors. Sealers should be used on flamed, sand blasted, sawn, and bush hammered surfaces.

 

STONE COLORS


As discussed previously, stone was formed from different types of natural minerals. Marble's main consistency is calcium. Calcium carbonate is the natural source that bonds the stone. Certain additive minerals blended in to the calcium during formation to customize these brilliant colors. The additive minerals are also color developers present in granite and other natural stones.

Stone Color: Mineral:
Black Biotite, Hornblende, Carbon
Brown Limonite
Gray Variety of minerals
Green Mica, Chloride, Silicate
Red Hematite
White Feldspar, Calcite, Dolomite.
Yellow Limonite

Mineral: Mineral Color:
Augite Brown, Green, Black, Purple
Biotite Black, Brown, Green
Calcite Pearlenscent and Pale Colors
Dolomite Colorless, Pink, Pale Brown
Feldspar Yellow, White, Pink, Green, Grey
Hematite Metallic Grey or Black
Hornblende Green, Yellow, Brown, Black
Limonite Black, Brown, or Yellow
Sulphur Pale Gold

Minerals have a variety of crystalline properties. A different property has a different color. For instance, Augite (listed above) has different crystalline properties. Each property has its own color. Stones brilliant colors and various crystal formations developed when different mineral properties blended together along with the integration of temperature and pressure.
The veins and color grains of marble were liquid minerals that flowed through the stone when the Earth heated up. The intense heat softened the limestone to allow the liquids to flow through it. When the Earth cooled, the mineral flow stopped and gradually hardened to its current state.
The delicate colors of stone can often be altered by the improper use of cleaning chemicals, mopping with dirty solution, using chemicals that are not designed for stone care, and sunlight can fade the color of natural minerals.

 

REFLECTIVITY 0F STONE

Stone contains natural crystals. These crystals reflect light to provide a shine on the surface. When the crystals are dull, crushed, or broken, they cannot reflect light evenly. For example, when the lens of a flashlight breaks, it cannot reflect the light that is being emitted from the bulb.
Polished stone floors become dull when heavy foot traffic along with sediment erodes the crystals. Normal footwear does not cause the main damage, sediment and grit do. The sediment and grit that lies on the stone surface is the main enemy of the stones crystals. The damage to the crystals occur when the pressure from the shoe forces the sediment
to abrade or fracture the crystals.
The only safe way to restore and sharpen the crystals is to polish them with diamond abrasives or polishing powders. The life span of crystals can be extended by administering a thorough dust mopping an extensive entrance matting is extremely important because it keeps exterior sediment from entering a building.

 

THE HARDNESS OF STONE

Marble is a relatively soft stone. On a measurement of hardness (MOHS), marble is approximately a three out of ten. Marble is made of calcium, just like your teeth. If you eat something to hard you will break your tooth. If you eat a lot of sugar you will get a cavity. Stone reacts the same way. If an improper chemical is applied to the surface, corrosion will begin to form cavities in the stone.
Listed below is the famous Measurement of Hardness (MOH) Scale for stone. This is a guide developed in the 1800's which helps evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the stone being used. For example, softer stones would require the use of a less active chemical and a more frequent dust mopping program.

MEASUREMENT OF HARDNESS SCALE
10 Diamond
9 Corundum
8 Topaz
7 Quartz (Granite)
6 Feldspar (Granite)
5 Apatite
4 Fluorite
3 Calcite (Most Marbles)
2 Gypsum
1 Talc

The objective of the MOH Scale is to measure stones resistance to hardness. When sediment and grit are harder than the surface, they will scratch and harm the stone. For example, a piece of hard plastic is about a 2.0. It will not scratch #3 Calcite (Marble). However, a piece of sand that measures a 6, will scratch #3 Calcite but will not scratch #7 Quartz which is Granite. The harder the stone, the more resistant it is to abrasion. Exterior sediment that is tracked in to buildings approximately measures from 3.0 to 7.0.

 

STONE MAINTENANCE & CHEMICALS

In the stone maintenance industry there are two main types of chemicals that are utilized, water-based and solvent-based.
Solvent-based chemicals do not contain any water and do not register a pH balance. These ingredients are only soluble in other solvents. Some examples of solvent chemicals are paint thinners, most penetrating sealers (impregnators), D-Limonene, and alcohol.
Water-based chemicals are chemicals that contain water and have a pH balance. Chemicals mixed in water are soluble in water. There are a variety of water based chemicals such as neutral cleaners, ammonia, bleach, and most chemicals that have a pH balance.
In order to determine the difference between solvent and water based chemicals, read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Most solvents have a flash point and can ignite. Most water-based chemicals do not have a flash point unless they contain a solvent ingredient to add strength to the product. For example, many degreasers contain D-limonene. In most stone care situations, if a stain or coating is water-based, then water-based chemicals are needed to remove it.
Listed below are samples of the two types of chemicals:

WATER-BASED: SOLVENT-BASED:
Alkalis D-limonene
Acids Alcohol
Hydrogen peroxide Siloxane
All purpose cleaners Acetone
Glycols Mineral spirits

Some product lines are derived of mainly water-based chemicals. The reason is due to the environmental concerns that solvent-based chemicals are harmful to our environment. Water-based chemicals are usually more user friendly. Remember to always wear proper protective gear when using any chemical and keep them all out of the reach of children.

 

UNDERSTANDING PH BALANCES

PH is a unit of measure to determine the alkalinity and acidity of a solution. PH has been defined as either the "Power of Hydrogen" or "Pre-existing Hydrogen." It is rated on a scale of 1 to 14. 1 to 6.5 being acidic (Hydrogen) and 7.5 to 14 being an alkali (Hydroxide). 7
being neutral.

1___2___3___4___5___6___7___8___9___10___11___12___13___14
ACIDS: NEUTRAL: ALKALIS:
Acid Bowl Cleaners Marbalex Strippers
Vinegar Marbamist Degreasers
Most Fruit Juices Marbadan Ammonia
Alcoholic beverages Stone Quest Most all purpose
Many household and household cleaners. bathroom cleaners. Dirt and soil
Many natural stones.
Most stones used today are sensitive to both acidic and alkali cleaners.

One reason is due to the fact that most stones are classified as hydroxides which classifies them as natural alkalis. Acids will burn most stones by dissolving the bonding agents that keep them together.
Alkalis usually do not damage stone as quickly, however, they will cause deterioration. The corrosiveness of acids cannot always be measured with the pH scale.
In most instances, the lower the pH number the stronger the acid. A solution with a pH level of 1 is usually stronger than a solution with a pH of 4. However, there are some acids with a higher pH that are stronger than an acid with a lower pH.
On the alkali side, the higher the pH number the stronger the alkali should be. A solution with a pH balance of 12 is usually stronger than a solution with a pH of 9. When using an alkali cleaner, never use hot water because it may create a stronger alkali reaction with adverse affects.
Understanding pH balances will help select the proper chemicals that can be used on stone. However, a main factor to remember when selecting a stone maintenance chemical is the activity level. For example, most neutral cleaners have a pH balance of 7; however, some neutral cleaners are stronger than others because they have higher activity levels. There are many neutral cleaners that are not active enough to thoroughly clean a stone's porous surface. There are also an abundance of neutral cleaners that are too active for stone to endure.
Many neutral cleaners have high activity levels that are corrosive to many stone surfaces. The neutral products have suitable activity levels that are safe on all stone surfaces, if used properly.

 

UNDERSTANDING PH BALANCES

PH is a unit of measure to determine the alkalinity and acidity of a solution. PH has been defined as either the "Power of Hydrogen" or "Pre-existing Hydrogen." It is rated on a scale of 1 to 14. 1 to 6.5 being acidic (Hydrogen) and 7.5 to 14 being an alkali (Hydroxide). 7 being neutral.

1___2___3___4___5___6___7___8___9___10___11___12___13___14
ACIDS: NEUTRAL: ALKALIS:
Acid Bowl Cleaners Marbalex Strippers
Vinegar Marbamist Degreasers
Most Fruit Juices Marbadan Ammonia
Alcoholic beverages Stone Quest Most all purpose
Many household and household cleaners. bathroom cleaners. Dirt and soil
Many natural stones.

Most stones used today are sensitive to both acidic and alkali cleaners. One reason is due to the fact that most stones are classified as hydroxides which classifies them as natural alkalis. Acids will burn most stones by dissolving the bonding agents that keep them together.
Alkalis usually do not damage stone as quickly, however, they will cause deterioration. The corrosiveness of acids cannot always be measured with the pH scale.
In most instances, the lower the pH number the stronger the acid. A solution with a pH level of 1 is usually stronger than a solution with a pH of 4. However, there are some acids with a higher pH that are stronger than an acid with a lower pH.
On the alkali side, the higher the pH number the stronger the alkali should be. A solution with a pH balance of 12 is usually stronger than a solution with a pH of 9. When using an alkali cleaner, never use hot water because it may create a stronger alkali reaction with adverse affects.
Understanding pH balances will help select the proper chemicals that can be used on stone. However, a main factor to remember when selecting a stone maintenance chemical is the activity level. For example, most neutral cleaners have a pH balance of 7; however, some neutral cleaners are stronger than others because they have higher activity levels. There are many neutral cleaners that are not active enough to thoroughly clean a stone's porous surface. There are also an abundance of neutral cleaners that are too active for stone to endure.
Many neutral cleaners have high activity levels that are corrosive to many stone surfaces. The neutral products have suitable activity levels that are safe on all stone surfaces, if used properly.

 

Stone Information
Natural Stone - The Technical & The Practical
 

Marble 1) In Geology, a metamorphic rock made up largely of
calcite or dolomite.
2) In dimension stone, a rock that will polish and that is
composed mainly of calcite or dolomite or, rarely,
serpentine.
Marble, the most commonly referred to natural stone, is
typically polished but also available in honed finishes. Ranges
from fairly "soft" to "somewhat hard" as natural stones go.
Massive array of colors and visual textures. Suitable for light
commercial or normal residential use; typically unsuitable for
very high-use or very high-traffic areas (many exceptions). Not
suitable for Kitchen counter installations. The term is sometimes
used (incorrectly from a technical standpoint) to include all
natural stones.
Granite 1) In technical Geologic terms, igneous rock with crystals or
grains of visible size and consisting mainly of quartz and the
sodium or potassium feldspars.
2) In dimension stone, crystalline silicate rock with visible
grains. The commercial term, therefore, includes other
igneous rocks that are not granite in the strict sense.
Granites are the densest of the natural stones, typically polished
but also available in honed or flamed finishes. "Hard" to "very
hard" as natural stones go, and therefore suitable for use both
commercially and residentially in very high-use areas (very few
exceptions). The "standard" natural stone for use residentially in
Kitchen counter applications.
Limestone Rock of sedimentary origin composed principally of calcite
or dolomite or both.
Limestone is a typically "soft" natural stone, most often honed
but depending on density can be polished. "Very soft" to
"medium" as natural stones go (few exceptions), and generally
quite porous. Suitable for light commercial and residential use.
It's use in medium to high-use areas is discouraged, but can be
achieved with proper monitoring and maintenance. Not suitable
for Kitchen counter installations.
 
Travertine A variety of limestone deposited by hot or cold water as
cavern fillings, including stalactites and stalagmites, or as
accumulations at springs.
 
Travertine, usually included in the general grouping of Marble,
is characterized by naturally occurring pits and fossils in the
stone material, filled during the manufacturing process in the
case of polished travertine. This characteristic fill typically yields
a "semi-polished" material. "Medium" hardness as natural
stones go, it is suitable for medium commercial and residential
use. Some travertine's are also available in unfilled form, lending
a profound visual texture to the material (practicality
notwithstanding). Not suitable for Kitchen counter installations.
 
Onyx A banded, varicolored form of quartz. Characterized by its translucency, Onyx is almost strictly a
decorative stone. It's typically high cost and fragility make it
unsuitable for most usages. Beautiful, but should be considered
"soft" as natural stones go. Limited to vanities or low use areas
residentially.
 

*Difinitions

Restoration Leveling of a surface by "wet " grinding with silicon carbide and/or diamond pads.
Hone Removal of Scratches by "wet" grinding with diamond pads. (a satin finish with little or no gloss).
Polish To bring the stone surface to a highly reflective state achieved by a friction abrasive and/or a chemical process.
Seal A subsurface treatment formulated to penetrate the stone surface, which enhances resistance to water & oil stains.
Complete Service Polish & Seal all marble floor walls counters Hone where needed.
Service Polish and Seal specific area.
Grout Thin mortar used for filling spaces between tiles or slabs. Examples: Sanded, Non-sanded, Epoxy.
Etch Action or effect of an Acid - based compound on a surface. Seen as dull spots or rings caused by acid - based tile and grout cleaners such as; Vinegar, Wine, Fruit, Vegetables, Orange Juice, Soft Drinks, etc
Strip To remove coatings; most commonly, chemical coatings, may be abrasive.
Poultice A unique mixture, which when applied extricates a stain from natural stone.
Cleaning To remove soap scam, dirt, and dost.
Waxing The application of a paste or a liquid wax to the stone to provide or maintain an Artificial Polish. Therefore we do not perform waxing.
 

Non Slip Treatment

Benefits

1.Reason of development : For prevention of slip/fall injury on tile floor with the simplest method and the least expense

2.Statistics of slip/fall injury : By National Safety Council and Statistics Canada
Over 25,000 slip/fall accidents occur every day.
About 1/2 of injury accidents at home is from slip/fall.
Compensation claims of workmen is total 200 million dollars peryear.

3.Coefficient of Friction (COF)
0.5 or above has been traditionally recognized as providing on hazardous walkway surfaces.
Americans with Disability Act and ATBCB recommend 0.6 or above for walkways and 0.8 for ramps.

4.TILE SLIP-STOP anti-slip effect by COF
Before treatment : 0.2 ~ 0.4 COF
After treatment of TILE SLIP-STOP : 0.7 ~ 0.9 COF

5.Advantages of TILE SLIP-STOP
- Best quality
- Most competitive price
- Easy spray type
- With pine scent

Contact Rock Stone Co.

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